Research database

Project information
Keywords
Keywords: indigenous peoples, governance, environmental decision making, traditional knowledge, land use conflicts, industry development
Project title
Indigenous-industry governance interactions in the Arctic. Environmental impacts and knowledge basis for management (IndGov).
Year
2019
Project leader
Camila Brattland and Else Grete Broderstad
Geographical localization of the research project in decimal degrees (max 5 per project, ex. 70,662°N and 23,707°E)
Norway: Tromsø: 69°40′58″N 18°56′34″E.
Participants

 

Department for Social Sciences, HSL Faculty, UiT.

 

Camilla Brattland (project leader)

 

Preben Moksness Sommer (master student)

 

Centre for Sami Studies, UiT:

 

Else Grete Broderstad (project leader)

 

Dorothee Schreiber (researcher)

 

Horatio Sam-Aggrey (research assistant)

 

Institute for Marine and Arctic Biology, UiT:

 

Vera Hausner (researcher)

 

Norwegian Institute for Cultural Heritage Research (NIKU):

 

Einar Eythórsson (researcher)

 

Elisabeth Librekt Olsen (researcher)

 

International partners:

 

University of Lapland, Finland: Monica Tennberg

 

University of Saskatchewan, Canada: Greg Poelzer

 

Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (Sveriges Landbruks Universitet): Per Sandström

 

Griffith University, Australia: Catherine Howlett

 

Flagship
Ocean Acidification
Funding Source

 

MIKON flagship, Fram Centre

 

Summary of Results

 

The IndGov project was a three-year Fram Centre project, aimed at identification of indicators of wellbeing for indigenous peoples and their socio-ecological systems, with relevance for environmental impact assessments and ecosystem-based management. By learning from diverse indigenous-industry governance arrangements and examples of integration of traditional knowledge in knowledge systems for management in the Arctic, the project has collated and researched governance interactions[1] that facilitate indigenous wellbeing. We have focused on different themes related to environmental impacts of industrial development in indigenous areas, containing different governing systems from year to year, and the systems- to-be- governed have been various forms of social-ecological systems where indigenous peoples depend on natural resources. The first year focused on interactions between aquaculture and fisheries governance and indigenous peoples in coastal areas in Norway, Canada and New Zealand, the second year’s theme was interactions between mineral and other extractive resource and indigenous land-based communities in Canada, Norway, Sweden and Australia. The third year focused on green energy development and reindeer herding communities in Norway and Sweden. During 2019, Brattland, Hausner and Sommer undertook case studies of interactions between wind power development and reindeer husbandry in Troms County (Vannøy and Kvaløy cases), and also organized a stakeholder workshop on the topic. Broderstad, Brattland and Sommer also followed the Troms County Council process towards a regional plan for reindeer husbandry, where identification of cultural sustainability indicators is among the topics under discussion. This entailed participation at two conferences on reindeer husbandry organized by the Troms County Council during the fall of 2019, and interviews with relevant government officials (Valle and Ballari). The stakeholder workshop was held on the 14th of October 2019 at the Fram Centre, hosted by NIKU, in Tromsø, preceded by an open seminar in English with around 60 participants. The focus was on the interaction between green energy development and indigenous peoples in Norway and Sweden. This was followed by a closed smaller workshop with 20 researchers and reindeer husbandry representatives. Relevant principles and indicators of indigenous wellbeing in the case of reindeer husbandry and impacts on land use are the following:

 

 

 

Principle1) the extent to which healthy ecosystems as a basis for indigenous livelihoods is an expressed intent or goal of the governance interaction.

 

Indicator: The amount of space allotted in municipal spatial plans to preserve the natural basis for reindeer husbandry (LNFR area or special conservation areas according to the Act on Plan and Building of 2009)

 

Principle 2) the extent to which modes of governance are collaborative

Indicator: The amount of complaints from reindeer husbandry on municipal or regulatory plans (should be kept to an acceptable level)



[1] Interactions are in the interactive governance perspective categorized as participatory, collaborative and policy or management interactions (from the actor perspective). At the structural level, different types or modes of governance are self-governance, co-governance and hierarchical governance: Kooiman, J., Bavinck, M., Chuenpagdee, R., Mahon, R., & Pullin, R. (2008). Interactive governance and governability: an introduction. The journal of transdisciplinary environmental studies, 7(1), 1-11.

 

Master and PhD-students involved in the project

 

Master stipend: Sommer together with Hausner and Brattland have carried out preparatory data gathering for the workshop on wind power development and impacts on reindeer husbandry in Troms County. This has included field visits to the Fakken wind power park on Vannøya, Karlsøy municipality, and the Kvitfjell and Raudfjell wind power park on Kvaløya, Tromsø municipality. The involved governance authorities and reindeer husbandry units have been interviewed and impacts from wind power industry construction and operation phases on reindeer herding activities were mapped. The master thesis focuses on forms of participation and impacts on social-ecological sustainability in the interactions between green energy development and reindeer husbandry, and will be finalized in May 2020.

 

 

 

For the Management

 

For the management (summary of findings that could be of interest to the management):

 

The IndGov project in 2019 offered a venue for discussing and comparing indigenous involvement in industry in terms of governance and integration of traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) in the context of interactions between green energy development and local and indigenous communities. The project highlights the lack of local and indigenous influence on green energy development in Norway (in the case of wind power), which in the case of the Sami is in some cases balanced with consultations with the Sami Parliament and/or agreements with industry. Similarly to the practice of Impact Benefit Agreements in Canada, however, the degree to which agreements with industry as a governance instrument facilitates indigenous wellbeing can be questioned. This depends on the degree of participation in industry projects not only prior to development, but also under the construction and operation phases. In the energy sector, Norway is thus more similar to governance regimes in Canada, where in previous project years we noted the contrast between strong state planning regimes (PBL) in Norway and the absence of a strong planning regime in Canada. For instance, this contrast is notable in the practice of direct agreements and negotiations/consultations between the aquaculture industry and First Nations communities (see also Eythórsson et al. 2019).

 

Relevant principles and indicators of indigenous wellbeing in the case of reindeer husbandry and impacts on land use are the following:

 

Principle1) the extent to which healthy ecosystems as a basis for indigenous livelihoods is an expressed intent or goal of the governance interaction.

Indicator: The amount of space allotted in municipal spatial plans to preserve the natural basis for reindeer husbandry (LNFR area or special conservation areas according to the Act on Plan and Building of 2009)

Principle 2) the extent to which modes of governance are collaborative

Indicator: The amount of complaints from reindeer husbandry on municipal or regulatory plans (should be kept to an acceptable level)

Principle 3) the extent to which governance instruments facilitate co-production of knowledge as a knowledge basis for EBMs and EIAs

Indicator: The number of reindeer herders or specialists with reindeer husbandry expertise on research teams, and the amount of resources (man hours) on projects allotted to collaboration with reindeer herders or specialists with reindeer husbandry expertise

 

 

Published Results/Planned Publications

 

  • Eythórsson, Einar, Broderstad, Else Grete, Schreiber, Dorothee and Camilla Brattland 2019. Governance of marine space; influence of indigenous peoples on location of aquaculture installations. Chapter in Allen, S., Bankes, N. and Ø. Ravna (eds). The Rights of Indigenous Peoples in Marine Areas Hart Publishing, London

     

  • Sam-Aggrey, H. (Forthcoming). THE ROLE OF INDIGENOUS LOCAL KNOWLEDGE (ILK) IN ENHANCING INDIGENOUS SECURITY IN THE MACKENZIE VALLEY, NORTHWEST TERRITORIES, CANADA. In Routledge's Handbook of Arctic Security. Available Feb 2020. ISBN (9781138227996)

     

  • Hausner, V., Engen, S., Brattland, C. and Fauchald, P. 2019. Incorporating herders’ knowledge and ecosystem-based adaptation strategies in local decision-making. Journal of Applied Ecology.

     

  • Brattland, C., Eythórsson, E., Weines, J. et al. 2018. Social-ecological timelines to explore human adaptation to coastal change. Ambio (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13280-018-1129-5

     

  • Brattland, C. and T. Mustonen 2018. How traditional knowledge comes to matter in Atlantic salmon governance in Norway and Finland. ARCTIC, 71 (4), 375-392

     

  • Coates, K. and Broderstad, E. G. 2019. Indigenous Peoples of the Arctic: Re-Taking Control of the Arctic. The Palgrave Handbook of Arctic Policy and Politics, Coates, K. and Holroyd C. (eds.), Palgrave macmillan, in press

     

  • Indigenous peoples and mining encounters. Workshop report from the TriArc and IndGov projects. Kiruna, Sweden. 19 – 21 September 2018. Available at the TriArc webpage: https://en.uit.no/forskning/forskningsgrupper/gruppe?p_document_id=482409

     

 

The following working titles are work in progress:

 

  • Summary report from the Tysfjord stakeholder workshop, due fall 2019

  • Brattland, Hausner, Riseth, Nygaard, Risvoll, Sommer, m.fl: Rapport fra workshop om vindkraft og reindrift.

  • Broderstad, Brattland, Eythórsson m.f.l. Synthesis report from TriArc and IndGov projects. Will be available on the TriArc webpage.

  • Workshop report: Green energy development on indigenous lands (forthcoming)

  • Horatio Sam-Aggrey: The role of traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) in fishery management in BC:  A case study of the West Coast Aquatic model (unpublished) In Tennberg, Monica et al. (eds.) forthcoming.

  • Hausner, Brattland, Sandström: Loss of indigenous Sami pastoral land under green growth. Global environmental Change, forthcoming

  • Brattland, Camillla, Schreiber, Dorothee, Broderstad, Else Grete and Cathy Howlett. Indigenous-aquaculture interactions and local community relations in Norway, Canada and New Zealand. In Tennberg, Monica et al. (efds.) forthcoming.

     

 

Communicated Results

 

14.10.2019: Presentation of IndGov at Tromsø workshop, Fram Centre

https://en.uit.no/tavla/artikkel/633036/energy_development_on_indigenous_lands_-_final_

 

29.10.2019: Presentation of IndGov at MIKON flagship meeting

 

IndGov was presented at an IndKnow working meeting 11. October, including a discussion on the contributions and future plans of IndKnow.

 

Interdisciplinary Cooperation

 

IndGov depends on collaborative team research including social scientists, ecologists and participants from indigenous organizations. The policy-relevant question on how different knowledge systems could enhance coastal zone – and land use planning require interdisciplinary competences from different scientific fields, but also direct collaborations with people with non-academic expertise. By use of participatory workshops we are better equipped to understand how local perceptions of the industries could be integrated in management and how guidelines for collaborating with indigenous communities could be developed. Through TriArc and IndGov, social scientists at UiT and NIKU cooperate with people with competence in sustainability science, Vera Hausner at UiT, and ecologist, Per Sandstrøm, at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.

 

Budget in accordance to results

 

The budget applied for and received in 2019 was N.kr. 633 351. IndGov is associated with the project TriArc, lead by Else Grete Broderstad, which has been funded by the Norwegian Research Council.

 

The funding from the Fram Center is important as it adds new data and analysis to answer specific questions on indigenous-industry governance interactions across a diversity of countries and contexts both in the Arctic and in the South. It has lead to the generation of several peer-reviewed publications, and funding research assistants which has made reporting across diverse cases possible. This is not often achieved on projects where collaboration across cases is a challenge. It has also resulted in a master candidate in societal planning with expertise on reindeer husbandry planning and interaction with industry. The funding has acted as a boost to the TriArc project as it has used the opportunity to gather stakeholders in conjunction with TriArc researcher meetings. This has increased the public impact of the project and increased learning among participants across diverse subject areas.

 

 

 

Funds remaining per 15.11.19 will be spent in its entirety in 2019 to:

 

 

 

  • Finalize synthesis report from TriArc and IndGov projects and workshop report on wind power development and reindeer husbandry (research assistant)

  • Finalizing planned publications

 

Could results from the project be subject for any commercial utilization
No
Conclusions

 

The IndGov project was a three-year Fram Centre project, aimed at identification of indicators of wellbeing for indigenous peoples and their socio-ecological systems, with relevance for environmental impact assessments and ecosystem-based management. By learning from diverse indigenous-industry governance arrangements and examples of integration of traditional knowledge in knowledge systems for management in the Arctic, the project has collated and researched governance interactions that facilitate indigenous wellbeing. We propose some principles for the formulation of indicators for social-ecological and indigenous wellbeing across contexts. The principles have been identified based on analysis of indigenous-industry governance interactions in the IndGov case areas, with an eye to the relevance for environmental impact assessments (EIAs) and ecosystem-based management (EBM). This has been achieved both through the IndGov project’s stakeholder workshops and preparatory data gathering, and by gaining comparative knowledge of indigenous relations with industry through the research of the TriArc project (funded by the Research Council of Norway 2017-2020). The principles for the extent to which governance interactions and instruments facilitate indigenous wellbeing are thus as follows:

 

 

 

1) the extent to which healthy ecosystems as a basis for indigenous livelihoods is an expressed intent or goal of the governance interaction

 

2) the extent to which modes of governance are collaborative,

 

3) the extent to which governance instruments facilitate co-production of knowledge as a knowledge basis for EBMs and EIAs

 

 

 

These principles are further explored in the case of green energy development which was the focus theme for the third and final year of the IndGov project, and will be used as a framework in upcoming publications.