Research database

Project information
Project title
Project leader
Ingunn Tombre, NINA
  • Ingunn Tombre (PI) - Norwegian Institute for Nature Research
  • Jesper Madsen - Aarhus University
  • Einar Eythórsson - Norwegian Institute for Cultural Heritage Research
  • Mary S. Wisz - Aarhus University
  • Jarle Werner Bjerke - Norwegian Institute for Nature Research
  • Anne Kari Bergjord - Bioforsk Mid-Norway (Kvithamar)
  • Silke Bauer - Netherlands Insititute of Ecology / Swiss Ornithological Station
  • Bart Nolet - Netherlands Insititute of Ecology
  • Hans Braveco - Alterra-Wageningen University and Research Centre
  • Caroline Ernberg Simonsen - Aarhus University
  • Magda Chudzinska - Aarhus University

Terrestrial - Theme: Adaptive management of ecosystems

Summary of Results

Fieldwork has been conducted in accordance to the project plan both in Vesterålen and in Nord-Trøndelag. The biological data collection was carried out during April and May, and interviews were made in September. There have been two meetings in the reference group (February and October) and two meeting in the project consortium (April - on Skype, and November - in Tromsø).

Result highlights


In the WP where the main aim is to evaluate the political-administrative feasibility of setting up a framework for adaptive management (at the local, regional, national and international level) preliminary results of interviews with local and regional authority reveals that

A) The willingness to participate in an adaptive co-management process is in general high in the goose-agricultural conflict. The authorities understand the need for incorporating updated research results in a flexible manner.

B) Several opinions on the existing subsidy scheme were revealed.

C) One important success criteria for the adaptive management framework appears to be personal involvement and enthusiasm among those involved. This may influence the process both in a positive and negative way, depending on who's involved.

D) The motivation for landowners to scare off the grazing geese on the different properties has been mapped (see results below), and varies considerably.


In order to measure consequences of goose grazing for the agricultural activity, 32 plots (5 x 5 meters, including unfenced controls) have been established at four different farms (they were removed after the geese had departed, and will be set up next season in the same spots). The reduction in dry mass weight both for the first and second harvest was measured. Some differences between plots were found, but overall there was a significant effect of goose grazing (see figure below, controls to the right). The setup will continue in two more seasons. Data from the exclosures will, when combining resource depletion and goose distribution models, provide data for a measure of the costs the geese have for the agricultural activity at a regional level.


The farmers who are not involved in a subsidy scheme (the subsidy scheme gives refuges for geese) may chase the geese off their properties in order to reduce damages. This will influence the geese's habitat preferences, as well as their individual intake rates and energy gain. Hence, in order to model goose distribution and resource depletion this activity needs to be mapped at a regional level. In 2011 goose scaring was quantified at two levels; one at a detailed scale where farmers (n=15) agreed to log their scaring activity daily (using standard forms given by the project) and at a larger scale giving a more general picture of the activity. Forms, along with an information letter and a post paid return envelope, were mailed to 127 farmers (distributed in 10 larger "study design blocks"). At present we have 76 % response. Farmers have answered whether they scare geese, their motivation for scaring or not, estimated daily time spent on scaring, scaring method etc. A scaring index will be made based on these data. The pie-chart below illustrates the scaring/no scaring percentage distribution and summarizes the farmers' motivation for scaring. Their own assessment of time spent on scaring is also listed.

Published Results/Planned Publications


Tombre, I. M. "MIGRAPOP – møte i referansegruppen 25.oktober 2011. Hvor er vi etter 10 måneder og hva gjør vi videre; noen resultater, noen erfaringer og innspill fra dere." Fylkesmannens hus Steinkjer 25. oktober 2011, Tombre, I.M., Madsen, J. Linnnebjerg, J. F. & Rigét, F. 2011. "

Konkurranse mellom kortnebbgås og hvitkinngås i Vesterålen." Mandagsseminar på NINA, Framsenteret 19. september 2011. Tombre, I.M. & Madsen, J. 2011. "

Svalbardbestanden av kortnebbgås; utfordringer på vårrast, jaktmuligheter om høsten og internasjonale forvaltningsprosesser". Fagsamling Viltforvaltning 2011, Direktoratet for naturforvaltning og Fylkesmenn. Jægtvolden Fjordhotell, 3.-5. mai. Tombre, I.M., Madsen, J. Linnnebjerg, J. F. & Rigét, F. 2011. "

Interactions between spring-staging goose species: a case study from Vesterålen, northern Norway." International conference on the Waterfowl of Northern Eurasia: "Waterfowl of Northern Eurasia: Geography, Dynamics and Population Management". Elista, Kalmykia, Russia 24-29 March 2011. Tombre, I. M. 2011. "

Adaptiv forvaltning av migrerende bestander; en utvikling av nye verktøy i grenseflaten mellom økologi, økonomi, landbruk og samfunn – MIGRAPOP" Mandagsseminar, NINA, 21. mars 2011. Tombre, I.M. 2011. "

Arktiske gjess i Vesterålen; resultater og internasjonale perspektiver." Åpent møte for grunneiere/gårdbrukere og kommunerepresentanter i Andøy, Sortland, Hadsel og Øksnes. Risøyhavn, Andøy, 28. februar 2011. Tombre, I. M. 2011. "

MIGRAPOP: Adaptiv forvaltning av migrerende bestander; en utvikling av nye verktøy i grenseflaten mellom økologi, økonomi, landbruk og samfunn." Orienteringmøte prosjekt MIGRAPOP for Fylkesmannen i Nord-Trøndelag (landbruk og miljø), Norges Bondelag avd Nord-Trøndelag, Bioforsk Midt-Norge, "Grønn forskning i midt-Norge", Bioforsk, Stjørdal 24. februar 2011.

Manuscripts in preparation:

Madsen, Tombre et al. Interaction between spring staging goose species: displacement caused by exploitative competition.

Tombre, Eythórsson, Madsen: Managing spring migrating geese in northern Norway: a success story.


Bjerrum, M., Madsen, J., Tombre I. M., Nicolaisen, P. I., Hansen, J., Ødegaard, P.I., Gundersen, O. M. & Jensen, G. H 2011. Biologisk evaluering av tilskuddsordningen for forvaltning av kortnebbgjess i Nord-Trøndelag, våren 2010 – NINA Rapport 662, 21 s. ISBN 978-82-426-2244-0.

Madsen, Tombre, Simonsen et al. Vårrastende kortnebbgjess i Nord-trøndelag våren 2011. NINA Report in prep – deadline 31.Dec.

Tombre, Madsen, Bakken. Registreringer av vårrastende gjess I Vesterålen. Resultater fra våren 2011. NINA report in prep – deadline 31 Dec.


Tombre, I. M. 2011. Status og oppdatering for MIGRAPOP, juni 2011. Informasjonsnotat til Referansegruppen og kommunerepresentanter i Nord-Trøndelag, juni 2011.

Tombre, I. M. 2011. Overvåking av kortnebbgås. I: Natur i endring – status for norsk naturovervåking. DN-rapport 3 – 2011, 75 s. ISBN 978-82-7072-886-2. (inkl. informasjon om prosjekter på kortnebbgås og oppdragsgivere/finansiering)

Tombre, I. M. 2011. Overvåking av hvitkinngås. I: Natur i endring – status for norsk naturovervåking. DN-rapport 3 – 2011, 75 s. ISBN 978-82-7072-886-2. (inkl. informasjon om prosjekter på hvtikinngås og oppdragsgivere/finansiering)

Tombre, I. M. 2011. Kortnebbgås i Nord-Trøndelag; en vurdering av skadeomfanget for landbruket. Informasjonsnotat til gårdbrukere april 2011, 2 s.

Tombre, I. M. & Bjerke, J. 2011. Beiteskadeforsøk i Nord-Trøndelag, notat til gårdbrukere. Informasjonsnotat til gårdbrukere april 2011, 4 s.


Tombre I. M. "Kortnebbgås i Nord-Trøndelag: En mulighet for jaktinteresserte, men en utfordring for landbruket..." Naturdatas viltkonferanse 2011: Framtidig forvaltning av storvilt og småvilt. Stjørdal 3. og 4. november 2011.


Communicated Results

News at homepage County Governor Nord-Trøndelag, 5.May 2011

"Bidrar med penger"

News at homepage Grønn forskning i Midt-Norge", 12. April 2011

"Gåseforsknings gir resultater"

News homepage NINA, 4.February 2011

"Vårrastende kortnebbgås i Nord-Trøndelag; god fordeling av miljøtilskuddsmidler"


Midtnytt – Nord-Trøndelag, NRK1 – 12.april 2011

E. Newspapers

SortlandsAvisa 19.mai. Reportasje om prosjektet og feltaktiviteten i Vesterålen.

Adresseavisa, 6. mai 2011: "

Forskerne kartlegger beiteskadene." LEVANGERavisa, 5. Mai 2011 "

Gir penger til gåsa"

Bladet Vesterålen, 1. mars 2011: "

Hvitkinngåsa tar over i Andøy"

Trønder-Avisa, 1. mars 2011: "Treffer bra med tilskudd"

A. Numerous constructive discussions with farmers and local authority during field work

B. Meetings in the reference group

Two meetings have been arranged in 2011; one in February in Stjørdal and one in October in Steinkjer. At these meetings we presented the concept and work plan for an attainment of acceptance and participation in providing management initiatives which can be scientifically tested. Results in progress were presented and suggestions for adjustments were given by the reference group. Our experiences with the reference group are extremely good; it is very useful for our scientific implementation of plans, as well as giving a broader acceptance for the project in the conflict situation geese/agriculture at a local and regional scale.

C. Internet

News at homepage Bioforsk 10.May 2011

"Kartlegger skadene av gåsebeiting"


Interdisciplinary Cooperation

An interdisciplinary approach is vital for this project (see earlier project description). Biological (empirical studies and modeling) and sociological expertise are involved. The project has a holistic approach. We can't see any negative aspects within the project consortium. Most of the members have cooperated for years and developed a cost-effective way of working.

Budget in accordance to results

The funding from the Fram Centre has been used as the planned own funding in the project, which already had external funding from the Research Council and the environmental and agricultural authorities. Without this, the budget would have been in a negative balance. Hence, the Fram Centre funding has been absolutely vital (and acknowledged!) for project implementation.

Could results from the project be subject for any commercial utilization

The outcome of MIGRAPOP will have direct implications for local, regional, national and international management, as well as for landowners and farmers in the study areas. The project will be a test case for the adoption of an adaptive management framework, both in Norwegian as well as European wildlife management. It will provide a novel approach to local sustainable management of a wildlife resource interfering with social interests. The approach will be based on voluntary agreements and co-management, and will be a model for adaptive resource management along the flyway of the goose species in the project as well as provide a model for other species and areas. The results of this work will directly inform the Norwegian management of the goose conflict through data and information which can be used in the regional management plans and to optimize the compensation system; 1) Do the present system provide best biological value for the money? 2) Are the payments sufficient?

To date, species distribution models have never been used in tandem with resource depletion models. This, however, promises to be a powerful and informative combination to relate how a species' distribution in space and time varies as a function of landscape variables (e.g. field type, field size, connectedness, disturbance, presence of other species, etc.) and resource dynamics that change according to species consumption behaviour and utilisation. Hence, as we see it, results from the project will be novel and a step forward in practising management of wildlife populations.