Research database

Project information
Project title
The studying of the present Ocean acidification state of the Norwegian waters
Year
2011/2012
Project leader
Kai Sørensen, NIVA
Participants
  • Kai Sørensen, NIVA (PL)
  • Evgeniy Yakushev, NIVA

Collaboration with UNIS for the glacier influence studies.

Flagship

Ocean acidification, Theme: Processes related to the Arctic and the sea ice

Summary of Results
Templefjord (Svalbard) studies
The performed studies in 2011 allowed to estimate the carbonate system (CS) parameters state in the coastal zone affected by the glacier in winter (February) and summer (early September) seasons. The measured carbonate system parameters (parallel measurements of pH using potentiometric(NBS/NIST scale) and spectrophotometric (total scale) techniques, total alkalinity and TIC) will allow to estimate the applicability of the different combinations of the CS parameters for calculating of acidification estimating in the High Arctic. The performed in parallel studies of the hydrophysical structure, oxygen distribution, main nutrient distributions
and biological parameters (Chlorophyll a) will give a unique data for the mathematical
models elaboration and verification.
 
Norwegian Sea and Barents Sea coastal studies
The performed studies in summer 2011 of the distributions of the carbonate
parameters, nutrients and biological characteristics along the Norwegian coast with a
Ferrybox equipped ship (MS Trollfjord) allowed to receive data necessary for estimating
of the natural ranges of variability of the parameters studied typical for the Norwegian
waters in present.
 
Studying and modeling of the carbonate system state in the Barents Sea
This work aimed in studying of the role of seasonality of the biogeochemical processes of
organic matter (OM) production and decay in the seasonal changes of the carbonate system
(pH, pCO2, aragonite saturation). The observations were performed at a transect Tromsø –
Spitsbergen with a Ferrybox equipped Ship‐Of‐OPportunity (SOOP) cargo vessel MS
"Norbjørn" and this data was used for verification. A simplified two dimensional vertical
model was used to parameterize the hydrophysical processes of at a Coast Open Arctic
section positioned along the observed transect. The biogeochemical processes were
parameterized using OxyDep (Yakushev et al., 2011), a simplified biogeochemical model
aiming time scales seasonal and larger, that considered inorganic nutrient (NUT), dissolved
(DOM) and particular (POM) organic matter and biota (BIO). Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC)
and alkalinity (Alk) were considered as independent model variables. DIC changes were
correlated with NUT on the base of the Redfield ratio, Alk was changed in the marine
boundary of the modeled transect. The carbonate system equilibration was considered as a
fast process and calculated at every time step using the iteration procedure. The carbonate
system modeling was described on the base of standard approach (Dickson, 2010). According
to the model estimates the summer formation of DOC and POC and their further destruction
affected the carbonate system seasonal dynamics. The modeled seasonal variations of pH
(~0.2) are close to the observed ones t, i.e. 7.94‐7.99 in February and 8.04‐8.16 in August
(pH(Tot)). Therefore it is possible to conclude that the OM production and decay is the main factor influencing the seasonal variation of the carbonate system parameters in the in the surface waters of the Barents Sea while the role of temperature is supplementary.
 
Templefjord (Svalbard) studies
The performed studies in 2011 allowed to estimate the carbonate system (CS) parameters state in the coastal zone affected by the glacier in winter (February) and summer (early September) seasons. The measured carbonate system parameters (parallel measurements of pH using potentiometric(NBS/NIST scale) and spectrophotometric (total scale) techniques, total alkalinity and TIC) will allow to estimate the applicability of the different combinations of the CS parameters for calculating of acidification estimating in the High Arctic. The performed in parallel studies of the hydrophysical structure, oxygen distribution, main nutrient distributions
and biological parameters (Chlorophyll a) will give a unique data for the mathematical
models elaboration and verification.
 
Norwegian Sea and Barents Sea coastal studies
The performed studies in summer 2011 of the distributions of the carbonate
parameters, nutrients and biological characteristics along the Norwegian coast with a
Ferrybox equipped ship (MS Trollfjord) allowed to receive data necessary for estimating
of the natural ranges of variability of the parameters studied typical for the Norwegian
waters in present.
 
Studying and modeling of the carbonate system state in the Barents Sea
This work aimed in studying of the role of seasonality of the biogeochemical processes of
organic matter (OM) production and decay in the seasonal changes of the carbonate system
(pH, pCO2, aragonite saturation). The observations were performed at a transect Tromsø –
Spitsbergen with a Ferrybox equipped Ship‐Of‐OPportunity (SOOP) cargo vessel MS
"Norbjørn" and this data was used for verification. A simplified two dimensional vertical
model was used to parameterize the hydrophysical processes of at a Coast Open Arctic
section positioned along the observed transect. The biogeochemical processes were
parameterized using OxyDep (Yakushev et al., 2011), a simplified biogeochemical model
aiming time scales seasonal and larger, that considered inorganic nutrient (NUT), dissolved
(DOM) and particular (POM) organic matter and biota (BIO). Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC)
and alkalinity (Alk) were considered as independent model variables. DIC changes were
correlated with NUT on the base of the Redfield ratio, Alk was changed in the marine
boundary of the modeled transect. The carbonate system equilibration was considered as a
fast process and calculated at every time step using the iteration procedure. The carbonate
system modeling was described on the base of standard approach (Dickson, 2010). According
to the model estimates the summer formation of DOC and POC and their further destruction
affected the carbonate system seasonal dynamics. The modeled seasonal variations of pH
(~0.2) are close to the observed ones t, i.e. 7.94‐7.99 in February and 8.04‐8.16 in August
(pH(Tot)). Therefore it is possible to conclude that the OM production and decay is the main factor influencing the seasonal variation of the carbonate system parameters in the in the surface waters of the Barents Sea while the role of temperature is supplementary.
 
Published Results/Planned Publications
E Yakushev, K.Sørensen Modeling of the role of organic matter production and destruction on
the carbonate system seasonal changes in the Barents Sea The 15th Russian Norwegian
Symposium at UNIS in Longyearbyen, Svalbard, Norway, 7‐8 September 2011 "Climate change
and effects on the Barents Sea marine living resources".
 
Abstracts
E. Yakushev, K. Sørensen (2011). Modeling study of role of organic matter production and
destruction on the carbonate system seasonal changes in the Barents Sea European
Geosciences Union, General Assembly 2011. Vienna, Austria, 04 – 08 April 2010. Geophysical
Research Abstracts.
 
E. Yakushev, K. Sørensen. On seasonal changes of the carbonate system in the Barents Sea:
observations and modeling. Journal of Marine Biology (to be submitted 01.12.11)
 
E Yakushev, K.Sørensen Modeling of the role of organic matter production and destruction on
the carbonate system seasonal changes in the Barents Sea The 15th Russian Norwegian
Symposium at UNIS in Longyearbyen, Svalbard, Norway, 7‐8 September 2011 "Climate change
and effects on the Barents Sea marine living resources".
 
Abstracts
E. Yakushev, K. Sørensen (2011). Modeling study of role of organic matter production and
destruction on the carbonate system seasonal changes in the Barents Sea European
Geosciences Union, General Assembly 2011. Vienna, Austria, 04 – 08 April 2010. Geophysical
Research Abstracts.
 
E. Yakushev, K. Sørensen. On seasonal changes of the carbonate system in the Barents Sea:
observations and modeling. Journal of Marine Biology (to be submitted 01.12.11)
 
Communicated Results
E. Yakushev, K. Sørensen (2011). Modeling of influence of organic matter production and
destruction on the carbonate system seasonal changes in Arctic waters. Arctic Frontiers 2011
conference (Tromsø, Norway, January 2011). (Poster presentation).
 
E. Yakushev, K. Sørensen (2011) Modeling study of role of organic matter production and
destruction on the carbonate system seasonal changes in the Barents Sea European
Geosciences Union, General Assembly 2011. Vienna, Austria, 04 – 08 April 2010. Geophysical
Research Abstracts. (Oral presentation).
 
E Yakushev, K.Sørensen Modeling of the role of organic matter production and destruction on
the carbonate system seasonal changes in the Barents Sea The 15th Russian Norwegian
Symposium at UNIS in Longyearbyen, Svalbard, Norway, 7‐8 September 2011 "Climate change
and effects on the Barents Sea marine living resources". (Oral presentation).
 
E. Yakushev, K. Sørensen (2011). Modeling of influence of organic matter production and
destruction on the carbonate system seasonal changes in Arctic waters. Arctic Frontiers 2011
conference (Tromsø, Norway, January 2011). (Poster presentation).
 
E. Yakushev, K. Sørensen (2011) Modeling study of role of organic matter production and
destruction on the carbonate system seasonal changes in the Barents Sea European
Geosciences Union, General Assembly 2011. Vienna, Austria, 04 – 08 April 2010. Geophysical
Research Abstracts. (Oral presentation).
 
E Yakushev, K.Sørensen Modeling of the role of organic matter production and destruction on
the carbonate system seasonal changes in the Barents Sea The 15th Russian Norwegian
Symposium at UNIS in Longyearbyen, Svalbard, Norway, 7‐8 September 2011 "Climate change
and effects on the Barents Sea marine living resources". (Oral presentation).
 
Interdisciplinary Cooperation
In this first phase of the project only collaboration within the acidification flagship has been
utilized. The received results can be helpful for planning of expedition studies, analyzing of
the archived field data, as well as for elaborating of the interannual and multidecadal
variations models. The next phase of the project is planned together with IMR and NP.
 
In this first phase of the project only collaboration within the acidification flagship has been
utilized. The received results can be helpful for planning of expedition studies, analyzing of
the archived field data, as well as for elaborating of the interannual and multidecadal
variations models. The next phase of the project is planned together with IMR and NP.
 
Budget in accordance to results

In which way has the funding from the Fram Centre helped the project?

The funding has help to increase the monitoring of the Barents Sea and supported KLIFs program with more seasonal data (more transects).

Did the Fram Centre funding act as a sufficient boost for completing the project through other sources of funding?

As above the funding has extended the area of coverage of the KLIF program.
 
As above the funding has extended the area of coverage of the KLIF program.
 
Could results from the project be subject for any commercial utilization
No
If Yes

No, commercial utilization except maybe to improve monitoring techniques.

Conclusions

Continue monitoring observations at a transect Tromsø Longyearbyen covering all the seasons. Continue work on a mathematical model of the carbonate state of the Arctic. Perform studies of the seasonal variability near the glacier (TempelFjord, Svalbard) aiming to study influence of glacial melting water on the carbonate system parameters

–In February 2012

–In Summer 2012